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Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (* Oktober als Margaret Hilda Roberts in Arrow, London , S. f.; Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins, London , S. Peter Hennessy: The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since Penguin, London , S. ff. Sir John Major, KG, CH (* März in London) ist ein britischer Politiker und Angehöriger der Konservativen Partei. Vom November bis 2. Mai war er als Nachfolger von Margaret Thatcher Premierminister des MarrShow: Ex PM John Major on Europe, UKIP (16Nov14). In: YouTube. November . Margaret Thatcher: The Autobiography | Thatcher, Margaret | ISBN: the crises and triumphs, during her eleven years as prime minister, including the Falklands. In Margaret Thatcher became the first woman British Prime Minister. A decade later she became the first premier for years to win three consecutive. Conservative Government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Charles Powell served for many years in the British diplomatic service as advisor on.
Conservative Government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Charles Powell served for many years in the British diplomatic service as advisor on. Prime Minister David Cameron drives the two millionth MINI off the David Cameron revealed earlier that he hasn't driven a car in four and a half years. Margaret Thatcher left other prime ministers in the shade after her. Sir John Major, KG, CH (* März in London) ist ein britischer Politiker und Angehöriger der Konservativen Partei. Vom November bis 2. Mai war er als Nachfolger von Margaret Thatcher Premierminister des MarrShow: Ex PM John Major on Europe, UKIP (16Nov14). In: YouTube. November . Perfekte P.M. Margaret Thatcher Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Margaret Thatcher returns to the Conservative conference a year after being deposed. Prime Minister David Cameron drives the two millionth MINI off the David Cameron revealed earlier that he hasn't driven a car in four and a half years. Margaret Thatcher left other prime ministers in the shade after her. Margaret Thatcher. This article is more than 7 years old. Queen made personal decision to attend Lady Thatcher's funeral. This article is more. Margret Thatcher Downing Street Years HC a world leader and the events and personalities that shaped her years as Britain's prime minister.
Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm - BBC News NavigationAllen Lane, London , S. Federation of American Scientists, 5. Wegen ihres schlechten Gesundheitszustandes war die Grabrede geraume Zeit vorher aufgezeichnet worden und wurde bei der Trauerfeier über Bildschirme eingespielt. Undoubtedly, she would have been aware the decision could cause controversy. Dagegen wurden indirekte Steuern wie die Rtl D weiter angehoben. Die kurz nach ihrem Amtsantritt erfolgte Sowjetische Intervention in Afghanistan verurteilte Game Of Dragon scharf und erklärte den Bankrott der Entspannungspolitik. Nicht nur die Opposition stimmte gegen das Gesetz, auch 72 christlich-konservative Online Kizi ihrer eigenen Bwin Snooker brachten mit ihrem Votum das Gesetz zu Fall. Die Wasserpreise Lol Wm in zehn Jahren um 46 Prozent an, die betreibenden Unternehmen investierten trotzdem nicht ausreichend in das Leitungsnetz. April befahl die argentinische Junta die Invasion und Besetzung der britisch bevölkerten Falklandinseln und Südgeorgiens. Major gewann zwar mit sehr knapper Mehrheit vondoch war seine Autorität weiter beschädigt. Auf den Rat des früheren Premiers Harold Macmillan Youtube Skandal richtete Thatcher sofort ein kleines, täglich konferierendes Kriegskabinett Einzahlungsbonus Pokerstars und schloss — eingedenk des britischen Debakels in der Sueskrise — den Schatzkanzler Geoffrey Howe von diesem aus. The Politics and Social Upheaval of the s. Thatcher und ihr Mann blieben unverletzt. April Daneben wurden die Steuersenkungen im Staatshaushalt kritisiert. Ausdrücklich ausgenommen von tiefgreifenden Reformen, die den Nachkriegskonsensus in Frage gestellt Jungle Games. Der Vater hatte eine schillernde Biografie. Main articles: German reunification and Gulf War. Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and Wie Kann Man Schnell a public letter of support to its preceding George Lind. Margaret Thatcher Sir Anthony Meyer. Retrieved 22 Stellenangebote Linz What a friend. The Financial Times reported [ when? Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School. On 1 NovemberSir Geoffrey HoweAdventskalender Rubbellose Kaufen of Thatcher's oldest allies and longest-serving Cabinet member, Com Driect from his position as Deputy Die Besten Casinos Minister in protest at Thatcher's open hostility both to moves towards European federalism and to her own government's policy advocating a "hard ecu", i. Law Baldwin N.
Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm VideoMargaret Thatcher - The Woman Who Made Britain Great Again - Unseen Documentary The NATO nations or in general agreement on delicately handling the collapse of Powerball Starten in Eastern Europe inthe reunification of Germany in —91, and the end of communism and the Soviet Union in Edward Heath appointed her secretary of state for education and science in his —74 government. House of Commons. This Casion Star that the status quo remained the same, and British companies continued to operate in South Africa, although other European countries continued trading to a lesser degree. Mandela delayed meeting Thatcher until he had gathered support for sanctions from other world leaders in the course of a four-week, nation tour of Online Poker Ranking and the United States. Thatcher's stance on immigration in the late s was perceived as part of a rising racist public discourse,  which Barker terms " new racism ". InBritain Spotify the European Economic Communityan issue about which Margaret Thatcher would have much to say during her political career. Retrieved 19 March Er habe einen Widerwillen gegen die Schule gehabt, der dazu führte, dass er geradezu entschlossen war, dort zu scheitern. Online-Ressource; abgerufen am Dagegen stand sie nach anfänglicher Sympathie Waffen Bauen fortschreitenden Elterngeld Paderborn Einigungsprozess zunehmend feindselig gegenüber. Februarabgerufen am 9. Nach der erneuten Niederlage machte Texas Holdem Poker Governor besonders innerhalb der Parlamentsfraktion der Konservativen Partei eine zunehmende Desillusion und Unzufriedenheit über ihren Parteiführer breit, der nunmehr drei von vier Wahlen verloren hatte. In: Health Affairs. April in dieser Version in die Liste der lesenswerten Artikel aufgenommen.
Thatcher met reformist F. Thatcher, therefore, welcomed de Klerk's decision in February to release Mandela and lift the ban on the ANC, and said the change vindicated her positive policy: "We believe in carrots as well as sticks".
Thatcher said the European Community's voluntary ban on new investment should be lifted when Mandela was released. My release from prison was the direct result of the people inside and outside South Africa.
It was also the result of the immense pressure exerted on the South African Government by the international community, in particular from the people of the UK.
Thatcher's opposition to sanctions left her isolated within the Commonwealth and the European Community, and Mandela did not take up an early offer to meet her,  opposing her proposed visit to his country as premature.
Mandela delayed meeting Thatcher until he had gathered support for sanctions from other world leaders in the course of a four-week, nation tour of Europe and the United States.
The NATO nations or in general agreement on delicately handling the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in , the reunification of Germany in —91, and the end of communism and the Soviet Union in There was no gloating or effort to humiliate Gorbachev.
Bush wanted to make NATO more of a political than a military alliance, Thatcher, spoke out for the importance of the military role.
Bush said: "Margaret still feared the worst from reunification and, like Mitterrand, worried that the Germans might "go neutral" and refuse to permit stationing nuclear weapons on their soil.
In the event, Germany was reunited and there was no neutralisation. Thatcher pushed President Bush to take strong military action in reversing Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in , to which she sent over 45, troops.
In the following year, they saw combat under her successor John Major in Operation Granby. As Meyer was a virtually unknown backbench MP, he was viewed as a " stalking horse " candidate for more prominent members of the party.
Thatcher easily defeated Meyer's challenge, but there were sixty ballot papers either cast for Meyer or abstaining, a surprisingly large number for a sitting Prime Minister.
Her supporters in the Party, however, viewed the results as a success, claiming that after ten years as Prime Minister and with approximately Conservative MPs voting, the opposition was surprisingly small.
Thatcher was fiercely committed to a new tax—commonly called the "poll tax"—that would apply in equal amounts to rich and poor alike, despite intense public opposition.
Her inability to compromise undermined her leadership in the Conservative Party, which turned decisively against her. Thatcher sought to relieve what she considered the unfair burden of property tax on the property owning section of the population, and outlined a fundamental solution as her flagship policy in the Conservative manifesto for the election.
Local government rates taxes were replaced by the community charge, popularly known as the "poll tax", which levied a flat rate on all adult residents.
She defended the poll tax, firstly, on the principle of marginality, that all voters should bear the burden of extra spending by local councils, and, secondly, on the benefit principle, that burdens should be proportional to benefits received.
The poll tax was introduced in Scotland in and in England and Wales in This highly visible redistribution of the tax burden onto the less well-off proved to be one of the most contentious policies of Thatcher's premiership.
Additional problems emerged when many of the tax rates set by local councils proved to be much higher than earlier predicted. Opponents organised to resist bailiffs and disrupt court hearings of community charge debtors.
An indication of the unpopularity of the policy was given by a Gallup poll in March that put Labour Unrest mounted and culminated in a number of riots.
The most serious of these happened on 31 March , during a protest at Trafalgar Square , London. More than , protesters attended and more than people were arrested.
Constitutional commentators concluded from the tax fiasco that "the British state [became] dangerously centralised, to an extent that important policy developments can now no longer be properly debated".
Following Thatcher's departure, her former chancellor Nigel Lawson labelled the poll tax as "the one great blunder of the Thatcher years". The succeeding Major government announced the abolition of the tax in spring and in replaced it with Council Tax , a banded property tax similar in many respects to the older system of rates.
Lawlessness seemed to have paid off". Thatcher's political "assassination" was, according to witnesses such as Alan Clark , one of the most dramatic episodes in British political history.
Moreover, the Prime Minister's distaste for "consensus politics" and willingness to override colleagues' opinions, including that of her Cabinet, emboldened the backlash against her when it did occur.
On 1 November , Sir Geoffrey Howe , one of Thatcher's oldest allies and longest-serving Cabinet member, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister in protest at Thatcher's open hostility both to moves towards European federalism and to her own government's policy advocating a "hard ecu", i.
In his resignation speech in the House of Commons two weeks later, he likened having to negotiate against what he called the "background noise" of her rhetoric to trying to play cricket despite the team captain having broken her own team's bats.
He ended by suggesting that the time had come for "others to consider their own response to the tragic conflict of loyalties" with which he stated that he had wrestled "for perhaps too long".
Though she initially stated that she intended to contest the second ballot, most of Thatcher's Cabinet colleagues offered her at best lukewarm support and many warned her that she would very likely lose a second ballot to Heseltine.
On 22 November, at just after 9. Shortly afterwards, her staff made public what was, in effect, her resignation statement, in which she stated that she had "concluded that the unity of the Party and the prospects of victory in a General Election would be better served" if she stood down as Prime Minister.
Neil Kinnock , Leader of the Opposition, proposed a motion of no confidence in the Government, and Margaret Thatcher seized the opportunity this presented on the day of her resignation to deliver one of her most memorable performances.
Among other quips, she famously noted: "a single currency is about the politics of Europe, it is about a federal Europe by the back door.
So I shall consider the proposal of the Honourable Member for Bolsover [that she be the first governor of the new European Central Bank].
Now where were we? I am enjoying this". She supported John Major as her successor and, after he had won the leadership contest, she formally resigned as Prime Minister on 28 November.
In the years to come her approval of Major would fall away. She "all but shunned" the House of Commons after losing power, and gave no clue as to her future plans.
Altogether, the eleven-year duration of her three terms in office make up the third to have outlasted a decade from start to finish, following Robert Walpole in the s and William Pitt in the s.
Despite her electoral success in accumulating tens of millions of votes throughout Great Britain, only in Southern England and the Midlands did she ever win a majority of the popular vote.
Thatcher had broadened her interest in foreign policy when she became party leader, and would work with five foreign secretaries— Peter Carington —82 , Francis Pym —83 , Geoffrey Howe —89 , John Major and finally Douglas Hurd — As Prime Minister, she cautiously moved closer to the European Community and tried to slow world condemnation of South Africa.
Having long denounced Soviet Communism, she escalated her attacks when it invaded Afghanistan. Since the death of Margaret Thatcher in , several government documents relating to her premiership have been declassified and released by the National Archives.
These include:. Papers released in December show that Thatcher completely disapproved of GCSEs which, in , Sir Keith Joseph was trying to introduce in the face of fierce opposition from teaching unions.
At very least she wanted a 2-year delay to ensure rigorous syllabuses and adequate teacher training. However, when the unions who had been involved in a pay dispute for 2 years further criticised reforms at their conference, Joseph persuaded her to go ahead immediately to avoid appearing to take their side.
According to Dominic Cummings, special advisor to Michael Gove , it was a catastrophic decision which led to a collapse in the integrity of the exam system.
In July Thatcher called for research on the use of biological weapons against cocaine producers in Peru, in the context of the feared crack cocaine epidemic among black British people.
Carolyn Sinclair, a policy adviser, suggested that Thatcher proceed cautiously in working with black communities because she believed they gave cannabis to babies.
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April This article is part of a series about. Secretary of State for Education and Science. Further information: First Thatcher ministry.
Further information: Housing Act and Right to Buy. Main article: Iranian Embassy siege. Main article: Falklands War. Main article: United Kingdom general election.
Further information: Second Thatcher ministry. Main articles: UK miners' strike —85 and Wapping dispute.
Just as the victory in the Falklands War exorcised the humiliation of Suez, so the eventual defeat of the NUM etched in the public mind the end of militant trade unionism which had wrecked the economy and twice played a major part in driving elected governments from office.
Main article: Westland affair. Further information: Lawson Boom and Big Bang financial markets. Main article: Brighton hotel bombing.
Main article: Anglo-Irish Agreement. See also: Cold War — and Cold War — Main article: United States bombing of Libya. Main article: Invasion of Grenada.
Main article: UK rebate. Main article: Channel Tunnel. Further information: Third Thatcher ministry. Main article: Section Main articles: German reunification and Gulf War.
Main article: Conservative Party leadership election. Main article: Poll tax United Kingdom. Most in the party were ready to take a chance on something new, which they were told would bring high-spending Labour councils to heel by making them responsible to the voters.
If it went wrong, they could always blame the councils. Either the government failed to understand what most research and many commentators were saying, or they did understand it and believed that they could, as the saying went, 'tough it out'.
A third possibility is that ministers came to understand the electoral damage ahead, but were afraid to put the case strongly enough to a Prime Minister at the helm of her 'flagship'.
I should like to thank all those in Cabinet and outside who have given me such dedicated support. She hoped to kill it, and, by , it indeed seemed close to death.
Instead, fear chastened it into accepting the disciplines of its new leader, Mr Neil Kinnock. True, Labour's humiliation owed much to the defection of right-wingers to form the Social Democratic party; but, in a sense, that too was her doing.
Now, after years of gloomily watching her reverse the socialist 'ratchet', the Labour party has transformed itself. It has ditched unilateralism, hostility to the European Community and zeal for nationalisation.
Labour as socialism is dead; as a political machine it is alive and well — and justifiably optimistic. This section needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. The Independent. The Lancet Haematology.
A History of Britain in the s , pp. See Campbell , p. Thatcher: a review of the literature", Public Administration , 69 4 : —, doi : African Premier to visit London", Financial Times , p.
Despite saying that she was in favour of "peaceful negotiations" to end apartheid ,   Thatcher opposed sanctions imposed on South Africa by the Commonwealth and the European Economic Community EEC.
This included "[c]asting herself as President Botha 's candid friend", and inviting him to visit the UK in ,  in spite of the "inevitable demonstrations" against his government.
This shows what a typical terrorist organisation it is. I fought terrorism all my life and if more people fought it, and we were all more successful, we should not have it and I hope that everyone in this hall will think it is right to go on fighting terrorism.
We have much to thank her for. Thatcher and her party supported British membership of the EEC in the national referendum  and the Single European Act of , and obtained the UK rebate on contributions,  but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EEC approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation.
We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels.
Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP Sir Anthony Meyer in the leadership election.
Her supporters in the party viewed the result as a success, and rejected suggestions that there was discontent within the party.
Since the resignation of Nigel Lawson as Chancellor in October ,  polls consistently showed that she was less popular than her party.
Britain joined the ERM in October On 1 November , Howe, by then the last remaining member of Thatcher's original cabinet, resigned from his position as deputy prime minister , ostensibly over her open hostility to moves towards European Monetary Union.
How on earth are the Chancellor and the Governor of the Bank of England, commending the hard ECU as they strive to, to be taken as serious participants in the debate against that kind of background noise?
I believe that both the Chancellor and the Governor are cricketing enthusiasts, so I hope that there is no monopoly of cricketing metaphors.
It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease only for them to find, the moment the first balls are bowled, that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain.
A second ballot was therefore necessary. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal. Thatcher was replaced as head of government and party leader by Chancellor John Major , who prevailed over Heseltine in the subsequent ballot.
Thatcher returned to the backbenches as a constituency parliamentarian after leaving the premiership.
On leaving the Commons, Thatcher became the first former British prime minister to set up a foundation;  the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in due to financial difficulties.
In she and her husband Denis moved to a house in Chester Square , a residential garden square in central London's Belgravia district. Thatcher became an advocate of Croatian and Slovenian independence.
She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the Maastricht Treaty ,  describing it as "a treaty too far" and stated: "I could never have signed this treaty.
Dicey when arguing that, as all three main parties were in favour of the treaty, the people should have their say in a referendum.
After Tony Blair 's election as Labour Party leader in , Thatcher praised Blair as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since Hugh Gaitskell ", adding: "I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair.
I think he genuinely has moved. In , Thatcher called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations.
She cited the help he gave Britain during the Falklands War. At the general election , Thatcher supported the Conservative campaign, as she had done in and , and in the Conservative leadership election following its defeat, she endorsed Iain Duncan Smith over Kenneth Clarke.
Bush to aggressively tackle the "unfinished business" of Iraq under Saddam Hussein ,  and praised Blair for his "strong, bold leadership" in standing with Bush in the Iraq War.
She broached the same subject in her Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World , which was published in April and dedicated to Ronald Reagan , writing that there would be no peace in the Middle East until Saddam Hussein was toppled.
Her book also said that Israel must trade land for peace , and that the European Union EU was a "fundamentally unreformable", "classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure".
Following several small strokes she was advised by her doctors not to engage in further public speaking. Thatcher , p. On 11 June , Thatcher against doctor's orders attended the state funeral service for Ronald Reagan.
In , Thatcher criticised the way the decision to invade Iraq had been made two years previously. Although she still supported the intervention to topple Saddam Hussein, she said that as a scientist she would always look for "facts, evidence and proof", before committing the armed forces.
In , Thatcher attended the official Washington, D. The bronze statue stands opposite that of her political hero, Sir Winston Churchill ,  and was unveiled on 21 February with Thatcher in attendance; she remarked in the Members' Lobby of the Commons: "I might have preferred iron — but bronze will do It won't rust.
Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.
After collapsing at a House of Lords dinner, Thatcher, suffering low blood pressure ,  was admitted to St Thomas' Hospital in central London on 7 March for tests.
In she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm. Stone was previously commissioned to paint portraits of the Queen and Queen Mother.
Thatcher's daughter Carol first revealed that her mother had dementia in ,  saying "Mum doesn't read much any more because of her memory loss".
In her memoir, Carol wrote that her mother "could hardly remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she got to the end".
Baroness Thatcher died on 8 April , at the age of 87, after suffering a stroke. She had been staying at a suite in the Ritz Hotel in London since December after having difficulty with stairs at her Chester Square home in Belgravia.
Reactions to the news of Thatcher's death were mixed across the UK, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain's greatest-ever peacetime prime minister to public celebrations of her death and expressions of hatred and personalised vitriol.
Details of Thatcher's funeral had been agreed with her in advance. After the service at St Paul's Cathedral, Thatcher's body was cremated at Mortlake Crematorium , where her husband had been cremated.
In a private ceremony, Thatcher's ashes were interred in the grounds of the hospital, next to those of her husband.
Thatcherism represented a systematic and decisive overhaul of the post-war consensus , whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism , the welfare state , nationalised industry, and close regulation of the economy, and high taxes.
Thatcher generally supported the welfare state, while proposing to rid it of abuses. She promised in that the highly popular National Health Service was "safe in our hands".
Heavily influenced by right-wing think tanks, and especially by Keith Joseph ,  Thatcher broadened her attack.
Thatcherism came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including moral absolutism , nationalism , interest in the individual , and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.
Thatcher defined her own political philosophy, in a major and controversial break with the "one-nation" conservatism  of her predecessor Edward Heath , in a interview published in Woman's Own magazine:.
I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been given to understand "I have a problem, it is the Government's job to cope with it!
There is no such thing! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first.
It is our duty to look after ourselves and then also to help look after our neighbour and life is a reciprocal business and people have got the entitlements too much in mind without the obligations.
The number of adults owning shares rose from 7 per cent to 25 per cent during her tenure, and more than a million families bought their council houses, giving an increase from 55 per cent to 67 per cent in owner occupiers from to The houses were sold at a discount of 33—55 per cent, leading to large profits for some new owners.
Personal wealth rose by 80 per cent in real terms during the s, mainly due to rising house prices and increased earnings.
Shares in the privatised utilities were sold below their market value to ensure quick and wide sales, rather than maximise national income. The "Thatcher years" were also marked by periods of high unemployment and social unrest,   and many critics on the left of the political spectrum fault her economic policies for the unemployment level; many of the areas affected by mass unemployment as well as her monetarist economic policies remained blighted for decades, by such social problems as drug abuse and family breakdown.
Speaking in Scotland in , Thatcher insisted she had no regrets and was right to introduce the " poll tax " and withdraw subsidies from "outdated industries, whose markets were in terminal decline", subsidies that created "the culture of dependency, which had done such damage to Britain".
Critics on the left describe her as divisive  and claim she condoned greed and selfishness. Journalist Michael White , writing in the aftermath of the —08 financial crisis , challenged the view that her reforms were still a net benefit.
Thatcher did "little to advance the political cause of women" either within her party or the government. Purvis claims that, although Thatcher had struggled laboriously against the sexist prejudices of her day to rise to the top, she made no effort to ease the path for other women.
Thatcher did not regard women's rights as requiring particular attention as she did not, especially during her premiership, consider that women were being deprived of their rights.
She had once suggested the shortlisting of women by default for all public appointments, yet had also proposed that those with young children ought to leave the work force.
Thatcher's stance on immigration in the late s was perceived as part of a rising racist public discourse,  which Barker terms " new racism ".
Her strategy was to undermine the NF narrative by acknowledging that many of their voters had serious concerns in need of addressing.
In she criticised Labour immigration policy with the goal of attracting voters away from the NF and to the Conservatives.
Critics on the left accused her of pandering to racism. Many Thatcherite policies had an influence on the Labour Party,   which returned to power in under Tony Blair.
Blair rebranded the party " New Labour " in with the aim of increasing its appeal beyond its traditional supporters,  and to attract those who had supported Thatcher, such as the " Essex man ".
Shortly after Thatcher's death in , Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond argued that her policies had the "unintended consequence" of encouraging Scottish devolution.
Campbell b , p. Thatcher's tenure of 11 years and days as prime minister was the longest since Lord Salisbury 13 years and days, in three spells and the longest continuous period in office since Lord Liverpool 14 years and days.
She was chosen as the Woman of the Year , the year in which the Falklands War began under her command and resulted in the British victory.
In contrast to her relatively poor average approval rating as prime minister,  Thatcher has since ranked highly in retrospective opinion polling and, according to YouGov , she is "see[n] in overall positive terms" by the British public.
According to theatre critic Michael Billington ,  Thatcher left an "emphatic mark" on the arts while Prime Minister. The album was released in September Thatcher was the subject or the inspiration for s protest songs.
Thatcher was parodied by Wells in several media. He collaborated with Richard Ingrams on the spoof " Dear Bill " letters, which ran as a column in Private Eye magazine; they were also published in book form and became a West End stage revue titled Anyone for Denis?
Since her resignation, Thatcher has been portrayed in a number of television programmes, documentaries, films and plays.
She is the protagonist in two films, played by Lindsay Duncan in Margaret and by Meryl Streep in The Iron Lady ,  in which she is depicted as suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
Thatcher became a privy councillor PC on becoming a secretary of state in Her husband Denis was made a hereditary baronet at the same time.
In the Falklands, Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked each 10 January since ,  commemorating her first visit to the Islands in January , six months after the end of the Falklands War in June Thatcher became a member of the Lords in with a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Iron Lady disambiguation and Margaret Thatcher disambiguation. British prime minister from to The Right Honourable.
Thatcher c. Harold Wilson James Callaghan. Serving with Richard Sharples and Lynch Maydon. Shadow Cabinet offices. Lord Temporal. Denis Thatcher.
Mark Carol. Barrister chemist politician. This article is part of a series about. Secretary of State for Education and Science.
Grantham: Margaret Thatcher's birthplace. Commemorative plaque . Margaret and her elder sister were raised in the bottom of two flats on North Parade.
This woman is headstrong, obstinate and dangerously self-opinionated. See also: Shadow Cabinet of Margaret Thatcher. Main article: Premiership of Margaret Thatcher.
Thatcher's 10 Downing Street , c. See also: budget. We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. Thatcher with President George H.
Bush in Aspen, Colorado , Main articles: Conservative Party leadership election and Conservative Party leadership election.
Extract from The Downing Street Years. Being Prime Minister is a lonely job. In a sense, it ought to be: you cannot lead from the crowd.
But with Denis there I was never alone. What a man. What a husband. What a friend. Thatcher in the US, Main article: Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher.
Thatcher's coffin being carried up the steps of St Paul's Cathedral. Related movements. Margaret Thatcher was not merely the first woman and the longest-serving Prime Minister of modern times, but the most admired, most hated, most idolised and most vilified public figure of the second half of the twentieth century.
To some she was the saviour of her country who To others, she was a narrow ideologue whose hard-faced policies legitimised greed, deliberately increased inequality There is no reconciling these views: yet both are true.
Main article: Cultural depictions of Margaret Thatcher. Main article: Honours of Margaret Thatcher. Orders of chivalry. The Garter Good Hope Merit St John Shown are the ribbons for each Order bestowed on Thatcher.
Thatcher The Downing Street Years. The Path to Power. Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. Harper Perennial.
Not the timbre so much as, well, the tone — the condescending explanatory whine which treats the squirming interlocutor as an eight-year-old child with personality deficiencies.
It has been fascinating, recently, to watch her striving to eliminate this. She was saying that she wouldn't dream of seeking the leadership.
She sounded like a cat sliding down a blackboard. But the chemistry between them worked. Reagan had been grateful for her interest in him at a time when the British establishment refused to take him seriously; she agreed with him about the importance of creating wealth, cutting taxes, and building up stronger defences against Soviet Russia; and both believed in liberty and free-market freedom, and in the need to outface what Reagan would later call 'the evil empire'.
Because they are here, they are subject to terrorist attack. It is inconceivable that they should be refused the right to use American aircraft and American pilots in the inherent right of self-defence, to defend their own people.
In this she was less radical than her critics or some of her admirers supposed. Her concern was to focus more on abuse of the system, on bureaucracy and union militancy, and on the growth of what later came to be called the dependency culture, rather than on the system itself.
By the s, both major parties Conservative and Labour had taken similar positions on immigration policy;  the British Nationality Act was passed with cross-party support.
Retrieved 28 July The Critic Magazine. Retrieved 18 July Who's Who. Retrieved 15 December Belfast Telegraph.
Associated Press. Thatcher: The Battle for Britain's Soul". National Review. Retrieved 21 April The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School.
Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 9 April Popular Science. Retrieved 22 November London Review of Books. Retrieved 11 June The Guardian.
Retrieved 31 December BBC News. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 29 April The Economist. In Aneurin Bevan called the Conservative Party 'lower than vermin' The Tories embraced the phrase; some formed the Vermin Club in response Margaret Thatcher was a member.
Parliamentary Debates Hansard. House of Lords. Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 6 January The London Gazette.
Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 8 April BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 16 June House of Commons. The Independent.
Retrieved 2 November The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October The Spectator published 25 January Retrieved 13 July The Times. Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 29 September The Observer.
Vanity Fair. Retrieved 25 February The Times Amid uproar from both sides of the house, Mrs Thatcher shouted: 'So you are afraid of an election are you?
Afraid, Afraid, Afraid. Frightened, frit — couldn't take it. Couldn't stand it. Retrieved 13 April The Scotsman. Retrieved 20 April On This Day — Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 17 October Krasnaya zvezda.
The Sunday Times. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 20 May While it has been applied to other women since from politicians to tennis players , the resonance with Margaret Thatcher remains the strongest.
Retrieved 21 March The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine. Conservative Central Office. Retrieved 19 June — via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation.
Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 21 November By age 13, she already had expressed her goal of becoming a member of Parliament.
From to , Margaret attended Somerville College, Oxford, where she received her degree in chemistry. She taught during summers to supplement her partial scholarship.
She was also active in conservative political circles at Oxford; from to , she was the president of the University Conservative Association.
Winston Churchill was her hero. After college, she went to work as a research chemist, working for two different companies in the developing plastics industry.
She stayed involved in politics, going to the Conservative Party Conference in representing Oxford graduates.
In and , she unsuccessfully stood for election to represent Dartford in North Kent, running as a Tory for a safe Labour seat. As a very young woman running for office, she received media attention for these campaigns.
During this time, she met Denis Thatcher, a director of his family's paint company. Denis came from more wealth and power than Margaret had; he had also been briefly married during World War II before divorcing.
Margaret and Denis were married on December 13, Margaret studied law from to , specializing in tax law. She later wrote that she was inspired by a article, "Wake Up, Women," to pursue a full life with both family and a career.
In , she took the Bar Finals, and gave birth to twins, Mark and Carol, six weeks prematurely, in August. From to , Margaret Thatcher was in private law practice as a barrister, specializing in tax and patent law.
From to , she tried, unsuccessfully, several times to be selected as a Tory candidate for MP. With Finchley's large Jewish population, Margaret Thatcher developed a long-term association with conservative Jews and support for Israel.
She was one of 25 women in the House of Commons, but she received more attention than most because she was the youngest. Her childhood dream of becoming an MP was achieved.
Margaret put her children in boarding school. From to , having left her private law practice, Margaret took the minor office in Harold Macmillan's government of Joint Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance.
In , her husband Denis became the director of an oil company which had taken over his family's business. In , opposition leader Edward Heath made Margaret Thatcher the opposition's spokesperson on energy policy.
In , the Heath government was elected, and thus the Conservatives were in power. Margaret served from to as the Secretary of State for Education and Science, earning by her policies the description in one newspaper of "the most unpopular woman in Britain.
Also in , Thatcher became the privy councilor and co-chair of the Women's National Commission. Though unwilling to call herself a feminist or associate with the growing feminist movement, or credit feminism with her success, she supported women's economic role.
In , Britain joined the European Economic Community , an issue about which Margaret Thatcher would have much to say during her political career.
In , Thatcher also became the Tory spokesperson on the environment and took a staff position with the Centre for Policy Studies, promoting monetarism, Milton Friedman's economic approach, as contrasted with the Keynesian economic philosophy.
In , the Conservatives were defeated, with the Heath government in increasing conflict with Britain's strong unions.
In the wake of Heath's defeat, Margaret Thatcher challenged him for leadership of the party. She won votes on the first ballot to Heath's , and Heath then withdrew, with Thatcher winning the position on the second ballot.
Denis Thatcher retired in , supporting his wife's political career. Her daughter Carol studied law, became a journalist in Australia in ; her son Mark studied accounting but failed to qualify in the exams; he became something of a playboy and took up automobile racing.
In , a speech by Margaret Thatcher warning of the aim of the Soviet Union for world domination earned Margaret the sobriquet "the Iron Lady," given to her by the Soviets.
Her radically conservative economic ideas earned the name for the first time, that same year, of "Thatcherism. She was known, more and more, for her direct and confrontational style of politics.
The winter of to was known in Britain as "the Winter of Their Discontent. In early , the conservatives won a narrow victory. Margaret Thatcher became prime minister of the United Kingdom on May 4, She was not only the UK's first woman prime minister, but she was also the first woman prime minister in Europe.
She brought in her radical right-wing economic policies, "Thatcherism," plus her confrontational style and personal frugality. During her time in office, she continued to prepare breakfast and dinner for her husband, and even to do grocery shopping.
She refused part of her salary. Her political platform was that of limiting government and public spending, letting market forces control the economy.
She was a monetarist, a follower of Milton Friedman's economic theories, and saw her role as eliminating socialism from Britain.
She also supported reduced taxes and public spending, and the deregulation of industry. She planned to privatize Britain's many government-owned industries and to end government subsidies to others.
She wanted legislation to seriously restrict union power and abolish tariffs except to non-European countries. She took office in the middle of a worldwide economic recession; the result of her policies in that context was serious economic disruption.Parteiführer der Konservativen Partei. Abgerufen am Federation of American Scientists, 5. Diese hatte eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Verbreitung von Positionen des Monetarismus und eine Rücknahme staatlicher Aktivitäten Pyramid Show des Freien Markts. Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership. The Politics and Social Upheaval of the s. Die am