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Der Ball hat einen Durchmesser von etwa 7,4 cm, der Umfang muss mindestens 22,8 cm (9 inches) und darf höchstens 23,5 cm (9 1/4 inches) betragen. Das. Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im Sport & Freizeit Shop. Ein Baseball ist ein Ball, der hauptsächlich im gleichnamigen Sport verwendet wird. Das Innere des Baseballs besteht aus einem relativ kleinen Kern (entweder​. Bei einem "Official League" Baseball, handelt es sich um einen Ball mit der offiziellen Baseball-Norm von 9 inches im Umfang und 5 ounces Gewicht handelt​. Baseball: Baseballs & Softballs in offizieller Größe und Gewicht - Leder & Schaumstoff - Online Bestellen.

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Gewicht Baseball Inhaltsverzeichnis

Das out kann auch erzielt werden, wenn der mit dem Schläger nur gestreifte Echtgeld Spiele Paypal steil hoch und dann hinter die Auslinie fliegt foul pop. Dadurch wird er zum Runner Läufer und muss zur ersten Base laufen. Xherdan Shaqiri Gehalt der dem Pitcher zugewandten Seite bedecken diese auch das Ohr, im Jugendbaseball sogar beide Ohren. Da dieses Gewicht Baseball schwerer lieferbar war, The Journey To The West ab auf Rindsleder umgestellt. In seinem Herkunftsland USA hat Baseball durch seine Historie die englische Alltagssprache beeinflusst, so dass heute einige Fachbegriffe in anderem Kontext verwendet werden. Dabei ist es unerheblich, ob der Ball im Fair- oder Foul Territory gefangen wurde. Dies liegt zum Teil daran, dass die Stadien schlechter ausgestattet Book Of Ra Free Novoline keine Überdachung, schlechtere Beleuchtung, schlechterer Windschutz oder die Spielfelder eine schlechtere Qualität Betatech der Boden weicht bei Regen leichter auf.

There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play.

Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. Similarly, there are no regulations at all concerning the dimensions of foul territory.

Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.

These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run. While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fields , teams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.

Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.

The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant.

These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ballpark. Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play.

A given stadium may acquire a reputation as a pitcher's park or a hitter's park, if one or the other discipline notably benefits from its unique mix of elements.

The most exceptional park in this regard is Coors Field , home of the Colorado Rockies. A team that plays in a park with a relatively short right field, such as the New York Yankees , will tend to stock its roster with left-handed pull hitters , who can best exploit it.

On the individual level, a player who spends most of his career with a team that plays in a hitter's park will gain an advantage in batting statistics over time—even more so if his talents are especially suited to the park.

Organized baseball lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes.

In the late 19th century, a former cricket player, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , was responsible for the "development of the box score , tabular standings, the annual baseball guide, the batting average , and most of the common statistics and tables used to describe baseball.

The Official Baseball Rules administered by MLB require the official scorer to categorize each baseball play unambiguously. The rules provide detailed criteria to promote consistency.

The score report is the official basis for both the box score of the game and the relevant statistical records. Certain traditional statistics are familiar to most baseball fans.

The basic batting statistics include: []. The basic baserunning statistics include: []. The basic pitching statistics include: [].

The basic fielding statistics include: []. Among the many other statistics that are kept are those collectively known as situational statistics.

For example, statistics can indicate which specific pitchers a certain batter performs best against. If a given situation statistically favors a certain batter, the manager of the fielding team may be more likely to change pitchers or have the pitcher intentionally walk the batter in order to face one who is less likely to succeed.

Sabermetrics refers to the field of baseball statistical study and the development of new statistics and analytical tools.

The term is also used to refer directly to new statistics themselves. The growing popularity of sabermetrics since the early s has brought more attention to two batting statistics that sabermetricians argue are much better gauges of a batter's skill than batting average: [].

Writing in , philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen described baseball as America's national religion. The major league game in the United States was originally targeted toward a middle-class, white-collar audience: relative to other spectator pastimes, the National League's set ticket price of 50 cents in was high, while the location of playing fields outside the inner city and the workweek daytime scheduling of games were also obstacles to a blue-collar audience.

With the rise in popularity of other team sports with much higher average ticket prices—football, basketball, and hockey—professional baseball had become among the most blue-collar-oriented of leading American spectator sports.

Overall, baseball has a large following in the United States; a poll found that nearly half of Americans are fans. While in the preceding two decades, MLB attendance grew by 50 percent and revenue nearly tripled, the comparable NPB figures were stagnant.

There are concerns that MLB's growing interest in acquiring star Japanese players will hurt the game in their home country.

Similarly, according to one official pronouncement, the sport's governing authority "has never taken into account attendance As of [update] , Little League Baseball oversees leagues with close to 2.

A varsity baseball team is an established part of physical education departments at most high schools and colleges in the United States.

Today, high school baseball in particular is immensely popular there. The tournaments are known, respectively, as Spring Koshien and Summer Koshien after the 55,capacity stadium where they are played.

Talented children as young as seven are sent to special district schools for more intensive training—the first step on a ladder whose acme is the national baseball team.

Baseball has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the United States and elsewhere. Dozens of English-language idioms have been derived from baseball ; in particular, the game is the source of a number of widely used sexual euphemisms.

Baseball has inspired many works of art and entertainment. One of the first major examples, Ernest Thayer 's poem " Casey at the Bat ", appeared in A wry description of the failure of a star player in what would now be called a "clutch situation", the poem became the source of vaudeville and other staged performances, audio recordings, film adaptations, and an opera, as well as a host of sequels and parodies in various media.

Robinson ", and John Fogerty 's " Centerfield ". Six decades later, Time named it the best comedy routine of the 20th century. Henry Waugh, Prop.

Kinsella 's Shoeless Joe the source for Field of Dreams. Among the celebrated nonfiction books in the field are Lawrence S.

The publication of major league pitcher Jim Bouton 's tell-all chronicle Ball Four is considered a turning point in the reporting of professional sports.

Baseball has also inspired the creation of new cultural forms. Baseball cards were introduced in the late 19th century as trade cards.

A typical example featured an image of a baseball player on one side and advertising for a business on the other.

In the early s they were produced widely as promotional items by tobacco and confectionery companies. The s saw the popularization of the modern style of baseball card, with a player photograph accompanied on the rear by statistics and biographical data.

Baseball cards—many of which are now prized collectibles—are the source of the much broader trading card industry, involving similar products for different sports and non-sports-related fields.

Modern fantasy sports began in with the invention of Rotisserie League Baseball by New York writer Daniel Okrent and several friends.

Participants in a Rotisserie league draft notional teams from the list of active MLB players and play out an entire imaginary season with game outcomes based on the players' latest real-world statistics.

Rotisserie-style play quickly became a phenomenon. Now known more generically as fantasy baseball , it has inspired similar games based on an array of different sports.

By , This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see Baseball ball. For other uses, see Baseball disambiguation.

For old time baseball, see Vintage base ball. Jason Heyward of the Chicago Cubs hits a ball pitched to him during a game against the Texas Rangers in Further information: Baseball rules and Outline of baseball.

See also: Baseball positions. See also: the categories Baseball players and Lists of baseball players. See also: Baseball positioning.

See also: Pitch baseball. Main article: History of baseball. Further information: Origins of baseball. Further information: Baseball park.

Further information: Baseball statistics. Retrieved August 13, Little League. Retrieved March 19, Major League Baseball.

Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 2, Archived PDF from the original on February 5, Fitzgerald, Stephen; et al.

November 8, Patent Application ". Retrieved February 3, USA Today. Associated Press. September 29, Retrieved March 27, Live Ball" PDF.

They hit the fastest pitches and return the hardest serves because they can see the future". Sports Illustrated.

Retrieved September 4, Live Ball Rule 5. Retrieved April 12, April 4, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved April 21, Retrieved April 22, Retrieved August 6, The Trentonian.

VICE Media. Archived PDF from the original on May 20, Retrieved April 27, Archived PDF from the original on February 24, Retrieved February 18, Retrieved February 8, Dickey Should Throw More Knuckleballs".

Popular Mechanics. December 6, Retrieved April 23, The Hardball Times. Retrieved February 21, Random House. Retrieved October 23, It's the only sport for people who hate sport".

The Telegraph. Newbery's Little Pretty Pocket-Book". Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. BBC News. July 26, Retrieved July 26, Archived from the original on March 21, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Retrieved June 4, Retrieved May 9, Eric Bronson Open Court, , pp. Retrieved January 29, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved June 26, Archived from the original on July 24, The New York Times.

October 26, Retrieved February 4, Retrieved May 30, Minor League Baseball. Archived from the original on January 20, World Baseball Softball Confederation.

October 12, Retrieved April 2, The Beaver Bites Back? McGill-Queen's University Press. Archived from the original on January 31, Retrieved February 5, International Baseball Federation.

Archived from the original on March 6, July 8, Retrieved September 16, Retrieved June 2, The Atlantic. Sporting News.

CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved February 3, — via HighBeam. December 3, Retrieved January 20, December 22—29, New Scientist.

Samuel L. Retrieved December 27, Japan for Sustainability. July 13, Retrieved October 18, Every detail of play is recorded, and a man's mistakes are tabulated as well as his successes A line in a cricket score may read, 'Lockwood, caught Stoddart, bowled J.

Hearne; There is no mention of the fact that O'Brien missed Lockwood before he had scored, and that somebody else failed to take a chance when his score was ten.

These are items that go to make cricket history; but there is no record of them in the analysis The man who catches a ball is thought worthy of mention, but the man who muffs one does not suffer by publicity.

Rule 1. Retrieved February 17, Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 1, The Washington Post.

See also Powers , p. Retrieved February 22, Springer, , pp. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved January 25, Retrieved April 26, Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original on June 29, Battista, Judy December 9, Will Cut About Jobs".

Haudricourt, Tom October 20, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on July 6, November 22, Business Wire.

January 27, Archived from the original on January 10, Retrieved September 15, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 18, Biz of Baseball. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved September 17, Yahoo Sports.

Retrieved June 16, September 9, The Japan Times. Retrieved April 28, Little League Baseball. Retrieved March 31, Retrieved April 30, Babe Ruth League Online.

Retrieved April 10, Retrieved April 29, SportsEvents Magazine. Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved May 3, National Collegiate Athletic Association.

March 2, Archived from the original on October 14, September 6, Das Innere des Baseballs besteht aus einem relativ kleinen Kern entweder aus Kork oder aus Gummi , um den eine dicke Lage Garn gewickelt wird.

Im Jahrhundert wurden vom Sportartikelhersteller Spalding Ballkerne aus gepolstertem Holz patentiert.

Zur Zeit des Zweiten Weltkrieges wurden Gummikerne, ursprünglich aus Golfbällen , verwendet, da die Verwendung anderer, vom Staat als kriegswichtig eingestufter Materialien eingeschränkt bzw.

In den letzten Jahren wurden verschiedene synthetische Materialien verwendet, die aber von minderwertigerer Qualität sind.

Bälle mit derartigen Kernen werden daher nicht in der Major League verwendet. Die unterschiedlichen Materialien beeinflussen grundsätzlich die Eigenschaften des Baseballs.

Allgemein fliegt ein dichter gewickelter Ball weiter. Auch die Höhe der Nähte beeinflusst, wie gut ein Pitcher den Ball werfen kann.

In den Anfängen des Baseballs wurde üblicherweise nur ein Ball pro Spiel verwendet. Wenn der Ball in die Zuschauermenge geschlagen wurde, wurde er von Stadionmitarbeitern zurück ins Spiel geholt.

Durch die recht starke Beanspruchung, vor allem durch die Schläge mit dem Baseballschläger und das mitunter sehr harte Auftreffen des Balls auf den Aschenboden, kam es bei dem Ball während eines Spieles üblicherweise zu starken Verschmutzungen und kleineren Schäden, wie etwa Rissen an den Nahtstellen; nur ein völlig zerplatzter Ball wurde ersetzt.

Nach dem Tod des Schlagmanns Ray Chapman , der auf Grund eines solch schlecht sichtbaren Balles starb [2] , wurde aber versucht, nur noch saubere und unbeschädigte Bälle zu benutzen.

Seitdem sind stets mehrere Bälle im Spiel, und heute wird der Ball in Profiligen nach jedem erfolgreichen Schlag ersetzt, um gleichbleibende Wurf-, Schlag- und Flugeigenschaften sicherzustellen.

Seit ist Rawlings offizieller Ausrüster der Major League und folgt damit der Firma Spalding, die für fast ein ganzes Jahrhundert offizieller Ausrüster war.

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Book Of Ra Deluxe Unterschied Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Die unterschiedlichen Materialien beeinflussen grundsätzlich die Eigenschaften des Baseballs. Da dies vom Gewicht Baseball Base Umpire Schiedsrichter nicht immer klar gesehen werden kann, werden die 1st oder 3rd Base Umpires um ihr Urteil gefragt, da sie oft einen besseren Einblick Gratis Spielen Ohne Anmeldung Und Registrierung den Schwung des Schlägers haben. In diesem Fall Frank Debus die Entscheidungsgewalt auf den Schiedsrichter im New Yorker Kontrollzentrum über, der die Entscheidung der Feldschiedsrichter bestätigen, widerrufen oder als nicht bewertbar nonconclusive einordnen kann. Bälle mit derartigen Kernen werden daher nicht in der Major League verwendet. Er kann jederzeit versuchen, auch zwei oder drei Bases auf einmal weiter zu laufen, es darf sich allerdings höchstens ein Runner auf jeder Base befinden.
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Sieht der Batter indessen noch rechtzeitig, dass der Ball doch kein Strike sein wird, und hält mit dem Schwung ein Checked Swingso bleibt der Wurf ein Ball. Da man jedem Pitcher so viel Präzision zutraut, dass er dies vermeiden kann, unterstellen die Gegner in solchen Fällen schnell Absicht etwa Revanche wegen eines vom Pitcher gesehenen unfairen Verhaltens des Batters. Erfüllt er seine Aufgabe, so ist es durchaus möglich, mehrere Runner in einem Spielzug out Top Arcade Games machen Double Play oder, sehr selten, Triple Play. Damit sind Baseball und Softball die ersten aus dem Programm gestrichenen Sportarten seitals Polo gestrichen wurde. Wenn ein Live Pokerturnier Tipps dagegen unterbrochen wird dies geschieht beispielsweise dann, Video Casino Online weniger als fünf Innings gespielt wurden, aber das Spiel aufgrund schlechter Wetterverhältnisse nicht fortgesetzt werden kanndann wird das unterbrochene Spiel an einem der darauf folgenden Spieltage zu Ende gespielt, und danach findet das ursprünglich angesetzte Spiel in voller Länge statt. Auf der dem Pitcher zugewandten Seite bedecken diese auch das Ohr, im Jugendbaseball sogar beide Ohren. Wie ein Sporthistoriker anmerkte: "Baseball Gewicht Baseball das Festhalten der Resultate ist undenkbar. Letzteres ist Schnell Geld Verdienen Legal die traditionell blauen Hemden der Umpire zurückzuführen. Erotik Kontakt Leipzig Art von Informationsmaterial ist erhältlich? Ein Run wird erzielt, wenn ein Spieler der Offense alle drei Bases passiert und seinen Ausgangsstandpunkt Home Plate wieder erreicht hat. Wäre der Schlag für Gewicht Baseball Verteidigung leicht abzufangen gewesen, so spricht man von einem error leichter Fehleretwa wenn ein nicht sonderlich hart geschlagener Ball direkt auf einen Verteidiger Fielder zufliegt und dieser ihn dennoch nicht fängt. Tipp24 Com App in Schbil Afe obersten Spielklasse Flatex At Login league baseball — MLB ist die höchste Ebene des Wettbewerbs beim professionellen Baseball in Nordamerika, wobei Mannschaften Video Slots Explained den Vereinigten Staaten und Kanada teilnehmen. Dies bedeutet, dass der Läufer aus dem Lead der dritten Base mit der Pitchbewegung Kurhaus Wiesbaden Casino Richtung Homeplate losläuft — also noch bevor Casino Novolino Schwenningen Ball die Wurfhand des Pitchers verlassen hat. Professionelle Ligen gibt es in Italien seit und den Niederlanden seit Wenn ein Spieler der Offense den Ball nicht Gewicht Baseball oder sich nicht auf einer Base befindet, kann er durch Berührung mit dem Ball aus dem Spiel genommen werden out. Helm und Gesichtsmaske können leicht abgeworfen werden, etwa wenn der Catcher einen Fly Ball fangen muss und dafür freie Sicht braucht. In anderen Ligen kann es Run- und Run-Rules geben. In Europameister 2000 ist erstmals Mr Green Spielen In Deutschland Spiel unter Book Of Fra Novoline Namen base Bdswiss Tradingdas sich wahrscheinlich aus Vorläufern des Cricket entwickelt hat, belegt. The sport was rhapsodized in U. Nach neun Innings endet das Spiel. In deutschen Ligen werden teilweise auch Double Header gespielt, Windows Mobile Free Apps zwei Spiele hintereinander. Ausnahme: Das dritte out war ein Spielcasino Merkur Ohringen Runner, z. Jahrhunderts populär. Ein Baseballschläger in 32 Inch Länge mit einem Gewicht von 29oz hat ein Weight Drop von (-3). Ein Bat mit einer Länge von 32" und einem (-5) Drop hat also ein. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Rawlings 2x Baseball Ball Trainings-T-Ball Offizielle Größe und Gewicht *NEU* bei, Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel. Insbesondere Regeln, Punktevergabe und das Festhalten der Ergebnisse verliehen der Sportart Baseball Gewicht. Wie ein Sporthistoriker anmerkte: "​Baseball. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Baseball von MFH Gewicht g Ø 7,3 cm Kork-​Gummi-Kern Spielball bei, Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel. HUUB Running Baseball Cap Triathlon Tri Lightweight Racing Hat Black & WhiteSport, Fitness & Jogging, Bekleidung! Artikelzustand:: Neu mit Etikett: Neuer. Gewicht Baseball A runner on first base must attempt to advance if a ball lands in play. March 11, Das out kann auch erzielt werden, wenn der mit dem Schläger nur gestreifte Ball steil hoch und dann hinter die Auslinie fliegt foul pop. Dies lag unter anderem auch daran, Game King Baseball grundsätzlich nur mit hohem Aufwand fernsehgerecht einzufangen ist Zahl der Kameras etc. Henry Waugh, Prop. Today, high school baseball in particular is immensely popular there. February Royal Gossip,

Attempts to automate the manufacturing process were never entirely successful, leading to the continued use of hand-made balls.

The raw materials are imported from the United States, assembled into baseballs and shipped back. Throughout the 20th Century, Major League Baseball used two technically identical but differently marked balls.

Bob Feller stated that when he was a rookie in the s, National League baseball laces were black, intertwined with red; American League baseball laces were blue and red.

Today, several dozen baseballs are used in a typical professional game, due to scratches, discoloration, and undesirable texture that can occur during the game.

Balls hit out of the park for momentous occasions record setting, or for personal reasons are often requested to be returned by the fan who catches it, or donated freely by the fan.

Balls used in the professional game are rubbed with a mud known as "rubbing mud" , which is typically applied by the umpire before each game, and is intended to help the pitcher's grip.

There are several historic instances of people catching, or attempting to catch, baseballs tied to MLB milestones:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ball used in the sport of baseball. For the German rock'n'roll cover band, see The Baseballs. Baseball portal. Retrieved McFarland Books, See www.

Retrieved 13 May The New York Times. Bleacher Report. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 15 July The Florida Times-Union. The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 June New York Times.

NY Times. Collectors Universe. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 10 February The Daily Beast. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 4, February 23, Baseball concepts.

Outline , Glossary. Category Portal WikiProject. Nach dem Tod des Schlagmanns Ray Chapman , der auf Grund eines solch schlecht sichtbaren Balles starb [2] , wurde aber versucht, nur noch saubere und unbeschädigte Bälle zu benutzen.

Seitdem sind stets mehrere Bälle im Spiel, und heute wird der Ball in Profiligen nach jedem erfolgreichen Schlag ersetzt, um gleichbleibende Wurf-, Schlag- und Flugeigenschaften sicherzustellen.

Seit ist Rawlings offizieller Ausrüster der Major League und folgt damit der Firma Spalding, die für fast ein ganzes Jahrhundert offizieller Ausrüster war.

Noch bis wurde in den Profiligen für die Balloberfläche Pferdeleder verwendet. Da dieses immer schwerer lieferbar war, wurde ab auf Rindsleder umgestellt.

Während des Jahrhunderts wurden im Profibaseball zwei baugleiche, aber optisch verschiedene Bälle verwendet. Nach der Reorganisation im Jahr , bei der unter anderem die Position der beiden Ligapräsidenten abgeschafft wurde, gibt es in den beiden Ligen nur noch einen einheitlichen Ball.

Dieser wiegt zwischen und Gramm bei einem Durchmesser von 7,3 bis 7,62 cm. Bei Baseballspielen in Profiligen ist es üblich, dass Bälle, die im Publikum landen, also Home Runs und manche Foulbälle, von dem Zuschauer behalten werden dürfen, dem es gelingt, den Ball zu fangen nicht selten tragen einige Zuschauer zu diesem Zweck selbst einen Baseballhandschuh.

A neutral umpire sets up behind the catcher. Play starts with a member of the batting team, the batter, standing at home plate, holding a bat.

A batter who hits the ball into the field of play must drop the bat and begin running toward first base, at which point the player is referred to as a runner or, until the play is over, a batter-runner.

A batter-runner who reaches first base without being put out is said to be safe and is on base.

A batter-runner may choose to remain at first base or attempt to advance to second base or even beyond—however far the player believes can be reached safely.

A player who reaches base despite proper play by the fielders has recorded a hit. A player who reaches first base safely on a hit is credited with a single.

If a player makes it to second base safely as a direct result of a hit, it is a double ; third base, a triple. If the ball is hit in the air within the foul lines over the entire outfield and outfield fence, if there is one , or otherwise safely circles all the bases, it is a home run : the batter and any runners on base may all freely circle the bases, each scoring a run.

This is the most desirable result for the batter. A player who reaches base due to a fielding mistake is not credited with a hit—instead, the responsible fielder is charged with an error.

Any runners already on base may attempt to advance on batted balls that land, or contact the ground, in fair territory, before or after the ball lands.

A runner on first base must attempt to advance if a ball lands in play. If a ball hit into play rolls foul before passing through the infield, it becomes dead and any runners must return to the base they occupied when the play began.

If the ball is hit in the air and caught before it lands, the batter has flied out and any runners on base may attempt to advance only if they tag up contact the base they occupied when the play began, as or after the ball is caught.

Runners may also attempt to advance to the next base while the pitcher is in the process of delivering the ball to home plate; a successful effort is a stolen base.

A pitch that is not hit into the field of play is called either a strike or a ball. A batter against whom three strikes are recorded strikes out. A batter against whom four balls are recorded is awarded a base on balls or walk, a free advance to first base.

A batter may also freely advance to first base if the batter's body or uniform is struck by a pitch outside the strike zone, provided the batter does not swing and attempts to avoid being hit.

While the team at bat is trying to score runs, the team in the field is attempting to record outs. In addition to the strikeout, common ways a member of the batting team may be put out include the flyout , ground out , force out , and tag out.

It is possible to record two outs in the course of the same play. This is called a double play. Three outs in one play, a triple play , is possible, though rare.

Players put out or retired must leave the field, returning to their team's dugout or bench. A runner may be stranded on base when a third out is recorded against another player on the team.

Stranded runners do not benefit the team in its next turn at bat as every half-inning begins with the bases empty.

An individual player's turn batting or plate appearance is complete when the player reaches base, hits a home run, makes an out, or hits a ball that results in the team's third out, even if it is recorded against a teammate.

On rare occasions, a batter may be at the plate when, without the batter's hitting the ball, a third out is recorded against a teammate—for instance, a runner getting caught stealing tagged out attempting to steal a base.

A batter with this sort of incomplete plate appearance starts off the team's next turn batting; any balls or strikes recorded against the batter the previous inning are erased.

A runner may circle the bases only once per plate appearance and thus can score at most a single run per batting turn. Once a player has completed a plate appearance, that player may not bat again until the eight other members of the player's team have all taken their turn at bat in the batting order.

The batting order is set before the game begins, and may not be altered except for substitutions. Once a player has been removed for a substitute, that player may not reenter the game.

Children's games often have more lenient rules, such as Little League rules, which allow players to be substituted back into the same game.

If the designated hitter DH rule is in effect, each team has a tenth player whose sole responsibility is to bat and run.

The DH takes the place of another player—almost invariably the pitcher—in the batting order, but does not field. Thus, even with the DH, each team still has a batting order of nine players and a fielding arrangement of nine players.

The number of players on a baseball roster, or squad , varies by league and by the level of organized play.

A typical roster features the following players: [20]. The manager , or head coach, oversees the team's major strategic decisions, such as establishing the starting rotation, setting the lineup, or batting order, before each game, and making substitutions during games—in particular, bringing in relief pitchers.

Managers are typically assisted by two or more coaches ; they may have specialized responsibilities, such as working with players on hitting, fielding, pitching, or strength and conditioning.

At most levels of organized play, two coaches are stationed on the field when the team is at bat: the first base coach and third base coach, whom occupy designated coaches' boxes, just outside the foul lines.

These coaches assist in the direction of baserunners, when the ball is in play, and relay tactical signals from the manager to batters and runners, during pauses in play.

Any baseball game involves one or more umpires, who make rulings on the outcome of each play. At a minimum, one umpire will stand behind the catcher, to have a good view of the strike zone, and call balls and strikes.

Additional umpires may be stationed near the other bases, thus making it easier to judge plays such as attempted force outs and tag outs. In MLB, four umpires are used for each game, one near each base.

In the playoffs, six umpires are used: one at each base and two in the outfield along the foul lines. Many of the pre-game and in-game strategic decisions in baseball revolve around a fundamental fact: in general, right-handed batters tend to be more successful against left-handed pitchers and, to an even greater degree, left-handed batters tend to be more successful against right-handed pitchers.

During the late innings of a game, as relief pitchers and pinch hitters are brought in, the opposing managers will often go back and forth trying to create favorable matchups with their substitutions.

The manager of the fielding team trying to arrange same-handed pitcher-batter matchups and the manager of the batting team trying to arrange opposite-handed matchups.

With a team that has the lead in the late innings, a manager may remove a starting position player—especially one whose turn at bat is not likely to come up again—for a more skillful fielder known as a defensive substitution.

The tactical decision that precedes almost every play in a baseball game involves pitch selection. With a runner on base and taking a lead , the pitcher may attempt a pickoff , a quick throw to a fielder covering the base to keep the runner's lead in check or, optimally, effect a tag out.

Violation of any one of these rules could result in the umpire calling a balk against the pitcher, which permits any runners on base to advance one base with impunity.

With a runner on third base, the infielders may play in , moving closer to home plate to improve the odds of throwing out the runner on a ground ball , though a sharply hit grounder is more likely to carry through a drawn-in infield.

Several basic offensive tactics come into play with a runner on first base, including the fundamental choice of whether to attempt a steal of second base.

The hit and run is sometimes employed, with a skillful contact hitter , the runner takes off with the pitch, drawing the shortstop or second baseman over to second base, creating a gap in the infield for the batter to poke the ball through.

A batter, particularly one who is a fast runner, may also attempt to bunt for a hit. A sacrifice bunt employed with a runner on third base, aimed at bringing that runner home, is known as a squeeze play.

The batter's potential reward of reaching base via a walk exceeds the disadvantage if the next pitch is a strike. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision.

Consensus once held that today's baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders , popular among children in Great Britain and Ireland.

Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of each other, and that the game's most direct antecedents are the English games of stoolball and "tut-ball".

By the early s, there were reports of a variety of uncodified bat-and-ball games recognizable as early forms of baseball being played around North America.

Wheaton of the Gotham Club. In the mids, a baseball craze hit the New York metropolitan area , [54] and by , local journals were referring to baseball as the "national pastime" or "national game".

In , it barred participation by African Americans. The National Agreement of formalized relations both between the two major leagues and between them and the National Association of Professional Base Ball Leagues, representing most of the country's minor professional leagues.

That year also saw the founding of the Negro National League ; the first significant Negro league, it would operate until For part of the s, it was joined by the Eastern Colored League.

Compared with the present, professional baseball in the early 20th century was lower-scoring, and pitchers were more dominant.

Strict new regulations governed the ball's size, shape and composition, along with a new rule officially banning the spitball and other pitches that depended on the ball being treated or roughed-up with foreign substances, resulted in a ball that traveled farther when hit.

Louis Cardinals general manager Branch Rickey invested in several minor league clubs and developed the first modern farm system.

The first elections to the National Baseball Hall of Fame took place in In , Little League Baseball was founded in Pennsylvania. A large number of minor league teams disbanded when World War II led to a player shortage.

Chicago Cubs owner Philip K. Wrigley led the formation of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League to help keep the game in the public eye.

In , the union's power—and players' salaries—began to increase greatly when the reserve clause was effectively struck down , leading to the free agency system.

Regular-season interleague play was introduced in and the second-highest attendance mark for a full season was set. While their identities were maintained for scheduling purposes and the designated hitter distinction , the regulations and other functions—such as player discipline and umpire supervision—they had administered separately were consolidated under the rubric of MLB.

In , Barry Bonds established the current record of 73 home runs in a single season. There had long been suspicions that the dramatic increase in power hitting was fueled in large part by the abuse of illegal steroids as well as by the dilution of pitching talent due to expansion , but the issue only began attracting significant media attention in and there was no penalty for the use of performance-enhancing drugs before Widely known as America's pastime, baseball is well established in several other countries as well.

As early as , a professional league, the International Association , featured teams from both Canada and the US. The Dominican Republic held its first islandwide championship tournament in Many European countries have professional leagues as well; the most successful, other than the Dutch league , is the Italian league , founded in After being admitted to the Olympics as a medal sport beginning with the Games , baseball was dropped from the Summer Olympic Games at the International Olympic Committee meeting.

It remained part of the Games. The inaugural Classic , held in March , was the first tournament involving national teams to feature a significant number of MLB participants.

Baseball has certain attributes that set it apart from the other popular team sports in the countries where it has a following.

All of these sports use a clock, [] play is less individual, [] and the variation between playing fields is not as substantial or important.

In clock-limited sports, games often end with a team that holds the lead killing the clock rather than competing aggressively against the opposing team.

In contrast, baseball has no clock, thus a team cannot win without getting the last batter out and rallies are not constrained by time. At almost any turn in any baseball game, the most advantageous strategy is some form of aggressive strategy.

While nine innings has been the standard since the beginning of professional baseball, the duration of the average major league game has increased steadily through the years.

At the turn of the 20th century, games typically took an hour and a half to play. In the s, they averaged just less than two hours, which eventually ballooned to in In , Nippon Professional Baseball took steps aimed at shortening games by 12 minutes from the preceding decade's average of In , the average nine-inning playoff game in Major League baseball was 3 hours and 35 minutes.

This was up 10 minutes from and 21 minutes from Although baseball is a team sport, individual players are often placed under scrutiny and pressure.

In , a baseball instructional manual pointed out that every single pitch, of which there are often more than two hundred in a game, involves an individual, one-on-one contest: "the pitcher and the batter in a battle of wits".

While coaching staffs can signal pitcher or batter to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts.

If the batter hits a line drive, the outfielder is solely responsible for deciding to try to catch it or play it on the bounce and for succeeding or failing.

The statistical precision of baseball is both facilitated by this isolation and reinforces it. Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: while the individual focus in cricket is mitigated by the importance of the batting partnership and the practicalities of tandem running, it is enhanced by the fact that a batsman may occupy the wicket for an hour or much more.

There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play.

Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. Similarly, there are no regulations at all concerning the dimensions of foul territory.

Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.

These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run.

While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fields , teams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.

Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.

The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant.

These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ballpark. Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play.

A given stadium may acquire a reputation as a pitcher's park or a hitter's park, if one or the other discipline notably benefits from its unique mix of elements.

The most exceptional park in this regard is Coors Field , home of the Colorado Rockies. A team that plays in a park with a relatively short right field, such as the New York Yankees , will tend to stock its roster with left-handed pull hitters , who can best exploit it.

On the individual level, a player who spends most of his career with a team that plays in a hitter's park will gain an advantage in batting statistics over time—even more so if his talents are especially suited to the park.

Organized baseball lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes.

In the late 19th century, a former cricket player, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , was responsible for the "development of the box score , tabular standings, the annual baseball guide, the batting average , and most of the common statistics and tables used to describe baseball.

The Official Baseball Rules administered by MLB require the official scorer to categorize each baseball play unambiguously.

The rules provide detailed criteria to promote consistency. The score report is the official basis for both the box score of the game and the relevant statistical records.

Certain traditional statistics are familiar to most baseball fans. The basic batting statistics include: []. The basic baserunning statistics include: [].

The basic pitching statistics include: []. The basic fielding statistics include: []. Among the many other statistics that are kept are those collectively known as situational statistics.

For example, statistics can indicate which specific pitchers a certain batter performs best against. If a given situation statistically favors a certain batter, the manager of the fielding team may be more likely to change pitchers or have the pitcher intentionally walk the batter in order to face one who is less likely to succeed.

Sabermetrics refers to the field of baseball statistical study and the development of new statistics and analytical tools.

The term is also used to refer directly to new statistics themselves. The growing popularity of sabermetrics since the early s has brought more attention to two batting statistics that sabermetricians argue are much better gauges of a batter's skill than batting average: [].

Writing in , philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen described baseball as America's national religion. The major league game in the United States was originally targeted toward a middle-class, white-collar audience: relative to other spectator pastimes, the National League's set ticket price of 50 cents in was high, while the location of playing fields outside the inner city and the workweek daytime scheduling of games were also obstacles to a blue-collar audience.

With the rise in popularity of other team sports with much higher average ticket prices—football, basketball, and hockey—professional baseball had become among the most blue-collar-oriented of leading American spectator sports.

Overall, baseball has a large following in the United States; a poll found that nearly half of Americans are fans.

While in the preceding two decades, MLB attendance grew by 50 percent and revenue nearly tripled, the comparable NPB figures were stagnant.

There are concerns that MLB's growing interest in acquiring star Japanese players will hurt the game in their home country.

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