Das chinesische Neujahrsfest, Chunjie, gilt als der wichtigste traditionelle chinesische Feiertag und ist eines der sechs asiatischen Mond-Neujahre. Der Neujahrstag, dessen Termin nach dem traditionellen chinesischen Lunisolarkalender berechnet. Wörterbuch Chinesisch-Deutsch: 春节 (chunjie / chūnjié) (deutsche Übersetzung: "Frühlingsfest") als chinesisches Schriftzeichen inklusive. Das chinesische Neujahrsfest, Chunjie (chinesisch 春節 / 春节, Pinyin chūnjié – „Frühlingsfest“; auch 農曆新年 / 农历新年, nónglì xīnnián. Chinesisches Neujahrsfest und Frühlingsfest. Januar – Februar Das chinesische Frühlingsfest Chunjie ist gleichzeitig das chinesische Neujahr. 春节(chūnjié) heißt Frühlingsfest. Und „Neujahr zu feiern“ heißt auf Chinesisch 过年 (guònián). Warum heißt es 年 (nián)? Hier gibt es eine kleine.
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The custom of pasting couplets on the doors has a long history. In the ancient times, people hung short branches of peach tree on the doors or at the front gates for the purpose of driving away the evil things.
Later they became peach wood boards with some Chinese characters written on them. With the invention of paper, on each of which was written a verse line to welcome the New Year to express wishes for happiness and good fortune.
During the long time development, spring couplets have become a special form of literature with their own characteristic.
People will enjoy the food and drink in abundance and Jiaozi. The meal is more luxurious than usual. Sons and daughters working away from home come back to join their parents.
Family reunion dinner. The young generation are given the red envelop from their elder generation. The Spring Festival carnivals take place during this period.
There are performances of dragon dancing, lion dancing and recreational parades in the street by some troupes. On this day people stay home to welcome the God of Wealth.
No one visits relatives and friends because it will bring both parts bad luck. From the sixth day to the tenth day, people either go out the visit their relatives or friends or go to the temples to pray for good fortune and health in the coming year.
In addition, the seventh day is the day for farmers to display their agricultural products. The day also considered as the birthday of human beings.
Noodles are eaten to promote longevity. When it comes to the tenth day, relatives and friends should be invited home to have dinner. After such a long time's sumptuous feast, on the 13th day people are supposed to have something simple and light to cleanse their body system to keep health.
Modern Chinese New Year Activities With the popularity of smart phone and other mobile devices, more and more people show interest in greeting by smart phone, which is very popular among younger generation.
Congratulations with text and graphics by smart phone is vivid and convenient. Besides, red packet in wechat makes Chinese people crazy.
No matter how much money they can receive from wechat friend, people still pretty enjoy it and never tire of it. Special Food for Spring Festival.
There are many kinds of jiaozi with different ingredients. Tangyuan with sesame inside is the most common filling.
There is a slight difference between northern China and southern China. The filling is salty in northern China, while that is sweet in southern China.
Meat is the main filling in southern China, while bean is main filling in northern China. Regarding to different places around the nation, people will have different activities to celebrate the festival.
During the festival, there are many operas and other performances on the stages. The performers tie two wooden stilts to their feet, which makes them taller than others.
Then they will do some funny movements or folk dances. People can see this kind of performance in Beijing, Tianjin as well as Liaoning and Shandong Provinces, etc.
The performance is the combination of music, dance and feats including the skill of handkerchiefs and the movements of feet.
It is the most popular perform art that originated from rice planting and farming in north China countryside.
By enjoy the Yangge together with the sound of firecrackers and drums, people will have the exact and direct feeling of how lively the atmosphere in the northern villages.
In the small village in northern Shaanxi Province named Ansai, nearly every one can play Waist Drum that originated in the ancient rituals to ancestor worship.
The skill now has become a famous celebration performance art. The performers some times more than , jump and dance in unison to the tempo of drums.
It gives people an unforgivable expression of magnificence and strong power, especially against the background of rolling mountain ranges and deep valleys.
Yangge performance In the capital city Beijing , the most Spring-Festival activity is Temple Fair which held in different ancient temples.
Temple fair in Beijing has a time-honored history. Traditionally, there are various kinds of performances in temple. Besides, one can find traditional arts and handicrafts as well as countless tasty local smacks from craftsmen and vendors along the streets.
Most temple fairs are features by their dragon and lion dancing as well as folk performances. For foreign visitors, it is a rare opportunity to experience Chinese colorful culture and tradition.
In Guangzhou City in southern China, the locals will have the Lion Dance that is the most attractive activities among the numerous celebrations.
Lion is regarded as a mascot by Chinese, so the dance of Lion is believed to bring good luck and drive away the evil spirits.
The performers will move imitating a lion to the beats of drums and gongs. Besides the Lion Dance, the Flower Fair is also very popular in the city.
When the Spring Festival approaches, the florists from suburbs will set up the temporary shacks to sell their fresh and fragrant flowers.
Then the street will be bustled with people who intend to buy flowers preparing for the Spring Festival. Traditionally, people like to buy a potted tree with lovely small tangerines hanging in it.
This meal is comparable to Thanksgiving dinner in the U. In northern China, it is customary to make jiaozi , or dumplings, after dinner to eat around midnight.
Dumplings symbolize wealth because their shape resembles a Chinese sycee. In contrast, in the South, it is customary to make a glutinous new year cake niangao and send pieces of it as gifts to relatives and friends in the coming days.
After dinner, some families go to local temples hours before the new year begins to pray for a prosperous new year by lighting the first incense of the year; however in modern practice, many households hold parties and even hold a countdown to the new year.
Watching it has gradually become a tradition in China. The first day is for the welcoming of the deities of the heavens and earth, officially beginning at midnight.
It is a traditional practice to light fireworks, burn bamboo sticks and firecrackers and to make as much of a din as possible to chase off the evil spirits as encapsulated by nian of which the term Guo Nian was derived.
Some consider lighting fires and using knives to be bad luck on New Year's Day, so all food to be consumed is cooked the days before. On this day, it is considered bad luck to use the broom, as good fortune is not to be "swept away" symbolically.
Most importantly, the first day of Chinese New Year is a time to honor one's elders and families visit the oldest and most senior members of their extended families, usually their parents, grandparents and great-grandparents.
Some families may invite a lion dance troupe as a symbolic ritual to usher in the Chinese New Year as well as to evict bad spirits from the premises.
Business managers also give bonuses through red packets to employees for good luck, smooth-sailing, good health and wealth.
While fireworks and firecrackers are traditionally very popular, some regions have banned them due to concerns over fire hazards.
For this reason, various city governments e. As a substitute, large-scale fireworks display have been launched by governments in Hong Kong and Singapore.
However, it is a tradition that the indigenous peoples of the walled villages of New Territories , Hong Kong are permitted to light firecrackers and launch fireworks in a limited scale.
Traditionally, married daughters didn't have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.
During the days of imperial China, "beggars and other unemployed people circulate[d] from family to family, carrying a picture [of the God of Wealth] shouting, " Cai Shen dao!
Business people of the Cantonese dialect group will hold a 'Hoi Nin' prayer to start their business on the 2nd day of Chinese New Year so they will be blessed with good luck and prosperity in their business for the year.
A representative from the government asks Che Kung about the city's fortune through kau cim. Rural villagers continue the tradition of burning paper offerings over trash fires.
It is considered an unlucky day to have guests or go visiting. In those communities that celebrate Chinese New Year for 15 days, the fourth day is when corporate "spring dinners" kick off and business returns to normal.
Other areas that have a longer Chinese New Year holiday will celebrate and welcome the gods that were previously sent on this day.
This day is the god of Wealth's birthday. In Taiwan, businesses traditionally re-open on the next day the sixth day , accompanied by firecrackers.
It is also common in China that on the 5th day people will shoot off firecrackers to get Guan Yu 's attention, thus ensuring his favor and good fortune for the new year.
The sixth day is Horse's Day, on which people drive away the Ghost of Poverty by throwing out the garbage stored up during the festival.
The ways vary but basically have the same meaning—to drive away the Ghost of Poverty, which reflects the general desire of the Chinese people to ring out the old and ring in the new, to send away the previous poverty and hardship and to usher in the good life of the New Year.
The seventh day, traditionally known as Renri the common person's birthday , is the day when everyone grows one year older. In some overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and Singapore, it is also the day when tossed raw fish salad, yusheng , is eaten for continued wealth and prosperity.
For many Chinese Buddhists, this is another day to avoid meat, the seventh day commemorating the birth of Sakra , lord of the devas in Buddhist cosmology who is analogous to the Jade Emperor.
Another family dinner is held to celebrate the eve of the birth of the Jade Emperor, the ruler of heaven. Come midnight of the eighth day of the new year, Hokkiens will offer thanks to the Emperor of Heaven.
A prominent requisite offering is sugarcane. Incense, tea, fruit, vegetarian food or roast pig, and gold paper is served as a customary protocol for paying respect to an honored person.
Candles are lit outside houses as a way to guide wayward spirits home. This day is celebrated as the Lantern Festival , and families walk the street carrying lighted lantern.
In China and Malaysia, this day is celebrated by individuals seeking a romantic partner, akin to Valentine's Day. The taste is an indication of their possible love: sweet represents a good fate while sour represents a bad fate.
The venue will usually be in or near the home of the most senior member of the family. The New Year's Eve dinner is very large and sumptuous and traditionally includes dishes of meat namely, pork and chicken and fish.
Most reunion dinners also feature a communal hot pot as it is believed to signify the coming together of the family members for the meal.
Most reunion dinners particularly in the Southern regions also prominently feature specialty meats e. If in the previous year a death was experienced in the family, seven dishes are served.
Other traditional foods consists of noodles, fruits, dumplings, spring rolls, and Tangyuan which are also known as sweet rice balls.
Each dish served during Chinese New Year represents something special. The noodles used to make longevity noodles are usually very thin, long wheat noodles.
These noodles are longer than normal noodles that are usually fried and served on a plate, or boiled and served in a bowl with its broth. Expectedly, the noodles symbolize the wish for a long life.
The fruits that are typically selected would be oranges, tangerines, and pomelos as they are round and "golden" color symbolizing fullness and wealth.
Their lucky sound when spoken also brings good luck and fortune. Pomelos is believed to bring constant prosperity. Dumplings and spring rolls symbolize wealth, whereas sweet rice balls symbolize family togetherness.
Red packets for the immediate family are sometimes distributed during the reunion dinner. These packets contain money in an amount that reflects good luck and honorability.
Several foods are consumed to usher in wealth, happiness, and good fortune. Several of the Chinese food names are homophones for words that also mean good things.
Many places in China still follow the tradition of eating only vegetarian food on the first day of the New year, as it is a sign of peace. So, they believe that eating only vegetarian food the first day will bring joy and peace into their lives for the whole year.
Like many other New Year dishes, certain ingredients also take special precedence over others as these ingredients also have similar-sounding names with prosperity, good luck, or even counting money.
In , the ruling Kuomintang party in China decreed that Chinese New Year will fall on 1 Jan of the Gregorian Calendar, but this was abandoned due to overwhelming opposition from the populace.
The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced that the public should "Change Customs", have a "revolutionized and fighting Spring Festival", and since people needed to work on Chinese New Year Eve, they did not have holidays during Spring Festival day.
The public celebrations were reinstated by the time of the Chinese economic reform. Red packets almost always contain money, usually varying from a couple of dollars to several hundred.
A married person would not turn down such a request as it would mean that he or she would be "out of luck" in the new year.
Red packets are generally given by established married couples to the younger non-married children of the family.
It is custom and polite for children to wish elders a happy new year and a year of happiness, health and good fortune before accepting the red envelope.
Red envelopes are then kept under the pillow and slept on for seven nights after Chinese New Year before opening because that symbolizes good luck and fortune.
In Taiwan in the s, some employers also gave red packets as a bonus to maids , nurses or domestic workers from Southeast Asian countries, although whether this is appropriate is controversial.
In the mids, Chinese messaging apps such as WeChat popularized the distribution of red envelopes in a virtual format via mobile payments , usually within group chats.
In addition to red envelopes, which are usually given from older people to younger people, small gifts usually food or sweets are also exchanged between friends or relatives of different households during Chinese New Year.
Gifts are usually brought when visiting friends or relatives at their homes. Common gifts include fruits typically oranges, but never trade pears , cakes, biscuits, chocolates, and candies.
Certain items should not be given, as they are considered taboo. Taboo gifts include:   . Markets or village fairs are set up as the New Year is approaching.
These usually open-air markets feature new year related products such as flowers, toys, clothing, and even fireworks and firecrackers. It is convenient for people to buy gifts for their new year visits as well as their home decorations.
In some places, the practice of shopping for the perfect plum tree is not dissimilar to the Western tradition of buying a Christmas tree.
Bamboo stems filled with gunpowder that was burnt to create small explosions were once used in ancient China to drive away evil spirits.
In modern times, this method has eventually evolved into the use of firecrackers during the festive season. Firecrackers are usually strung on a long fused string so it can be hung down.
Each firecracker is rolled up in red papers, as red is auspicious, with gunpowder in its core. Once ignited, the firecracker lets out a loud popping noise and, as they are usually strung together by the hundreds, the firecrackers are known for their deafening explosions that are thought to scare away evil spirits.
The burning of firecrackers also signifies a joyful time of year and has become an integral aspect of Chinese New Year celebrations.
During the New Year holidays, the stage boss gathers the most popular actors whom from various troupes let them perform repertories from Qing dynasty.
Nowadays people prefer celebrating the new year with their family by watching these movies together. The color red is commonly worn throughout Chinese New Year; traditional beliefs held that red could scare away evil spirits and bad fortune.
The wearing of new clothes is another clothing custom during the festival, the new clothes symbolize a new beginning in the year, and enough things to use and wear in this time.
In some places, the taking of a family portrait is an important ceremony after the relatives are gathered. The photo is taken at the hall of the house or taken in front of the house.
The most senior male head of the family sits in the center. As with all cultures, Chinese New Year traditions incorporate elements that are symbolic of deeper meaning.
Therefore, it symbolizes the arrival of luck, happiness, and prosperity. For the Cantonese -speaking people, if the fu sign is hung upside down, the implied dao upside down sounds like the Cantonese word for "pour", producing "pour the luck [away]", which would usually symbolize bad luck; this is why the fu character is not usually hung upside-down in Cantonese communities.
Red is the predominant color used in New Year celebrations. Red is the emblem of joy, and this color also symbolizes virtue, truth and sincerity.
On the Chinese opera stage, a painted red face usually denotes a sacred or loyal personage and sometimes a great emperor.
Candies, cakes, decorations and many things associated with the New Year and its ceremonies are colored red. According to Chinese tradition, the year of the pig is a generally unlucky year for the public, which is why you need to reevaluate most of your decisions before you reach a conclusion.
However, this only helps you get even more control over your life as you learn to stay ahead of everything by being cautious.
Nianhua can be a form of Chinese colored woodblock printing, for decoration during Chinese New Year. The following are popular floral decorations for the New Year and are available at new year markets.
Traditionally, families gather together during the Chinese New Year. In modern China, migrant workers in China travel home to have reunion dinners with their families on Chinese New Year's Eve.
Owing to a large number of interprovincial travelers, special arrangements were made by railways , buses and airlines starting from 15 days before the New Year's Day.
This day period is called chunyun , and is known as the world's largest annual migration. In Taiwan, spring travel is also a major event.
The majority of transportation in western Taiwan is in a north—south direction: long-distance travel between urbanized north and hometowns in the rural south.
Transportation in eastern Taiwan and that between Taiwan and its islands is less convenient. Cross-strait flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in as part of Three Links , mostly for "Taiwanese businessmen" to return to Taiwan for the new year.
Chinese New Year is also celebrated annually in many countries with significant Chinese populations. These include countries throughout Asia, Oceania, and North America.
In some countries of Southeast Asia, Chinese New Year is a national public holiday and considered to be one of the most important holidays of the year.
In Singapore, Chinese New Year is accompanied by various festive activities. One of the main highlights is the Chinatown celebrations.
In , this included a Festive Street Bazaar, nightly staged shows at Kreta Ayer Square and a lion dance competition. It is an annual street parade in Singapore, well known for its colorful floats and wide variety of cultural performances.
In the Philippines, Chinese New Year is considered to be the most important festival for Filipino-Chinese , and its celebration has also extended to the non-Chinese majority Filipinos.
In Thailand, one of the most populous Chinese descent populated countries. Also celebrated the great Chinese New Year festivities throughout the country, especially in provinces where many Chinese descent live such as Nakhon Sawan , Suphan Buri , Phuket etc.
Which is considered to promote tourism in the same agenda as well. In the capital, Bangkok in Chinatown , Yaowarat Road , there is a great celebration.
Which usually closes the road making it a pedestrian street and often have a member of royal family came to be the president of the ceremony, always open every year, such as Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn.
This restriction is ended when the regime has changed and the President Suharto was overthrown. The celebration is conducted unofficially by Chinese community from to The remaining 14 days are celebrated only by ethnic Chinese families.
Every year, the Ministry of Religious Affairs Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia set the specific date of religious holiday based on input from religious leaders.
A lot shopping malls decorated its building with lantern, Chinese words and lion or dragon with red and gold as main color.
Lion dance is a common sight around Chinese houses, temples and its shop houses. Usually, the Buddhist , Confucian and Taoist Chinese will burn a big incense made by aloeswood with dragon-decorated at front of their house.
The Chinese temple is open 24 hours at the first day, their also distributes a red envelopes and sometimes rice, fruits or sugar to the poor around.
And often wear red clothes because it is believed to bring auspiciousness to life. Observed by Thai Chinese and parts of the private sector.
Usually celebrated for three days, starting on the day before the Chinese New Year's Eve. With one of the largest Chinese populations outside of Asia , Sydney also claims to have the largest Chinese New Year Celebrations outside of Asia with over , people attending the celebrations in Chinatown annually.
The events there span over three weeks including the launch celebration, outdoor markets, evening street food stalls, Chinese top opera performances, dragon boat races, a film festival and multiple parades that incorporate Chinese, Japanese, Korean people and Vietnamese performers.
More than , people attend notably the main parade with over 3, performers. Apart from Sydney, other state capital cities in Australia also celebrate Chinese New Year due to large number of Chinese residents.
The common activities are lion dance, dragon dance, New Year market, and food festival. The city of Wellington hosts a two-day weekend festival for Chinese New Year,  and a one-day festival is held in Dunedin , centred on the city's Chinese gardens.
The festivities include cultural festival,  music concert,  fireworks on the Hudson River near the Chinese Consulate,  and special exhibits.
The festival incorporates Grant and Kearny Streets into its street festival and parade route, respectively. The use of these streets traces its lineage back to early parades beginning the custom in San Francisco.
In , with the discovery of gold and the ensuing California Gold Rush , over 50, people had come to San Francisco to seek their fortune or just a better way of life.
Among those were many Chinese, who had come to work in the gold mines and on the railroad. By the s, the residents of San Francisco's Chinatown were eager to share their culture with their fellow San Francisco residents who may have been unfamiliar with or hostile towards it.
The organizers chose to showcase their culture by using a favorite American tradition — the parade. They invited a variety of other groups from the city to participate, and they marched down what today are Grant Avenue and Kearny Street carrying colorful flags, banners, lanterns, drums, and firecrackers to drive away evil spirits.
Festivities include a parade, cultural feast, fireworks, concerts and performances. In Paris, the celebrations have been held since the s in several districts during one month with many performances  and the main of the three parades with 40 groups and 4, performers is attended alone by more than , people in the 13th arrondissement.
Celebrations have been held officially in The Hague since Many celebrate the festival in Chinatown , Kolkata, India where a significant community of people of Chinese origin exists.
In Kolkata , Chinese New Year is celebrated with lion and dragon dance. In Pakistan, the Chinese New Year is also celebrated among the sizable Chinese expatriate community that lives in the country.
During the festival, the Chinese embassy in Islamabad arranges various cultural events in which Pakistani arts and cultural organizations and members of the civil society also participate.
They probably predate the Ming dynasty — , but did not become widespread until then. Numerous other greetings exist, some of which may be exclaimed out loud to no one in particular in specific situations.
The most common auspicious greetings and sayings consist of four characters, such as the following:. These greetings or phrases may also be used just before children receive their red packets, when gifts are exchanged, when visiting temples, or even when tossing the shredded ingredients of yusheng particularly popular in Malaysia and Singapore.
Children and their parents can also pray in the temple, in hopes of getting good blessings for the new year to come.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the festival observed on the traditional Chinese calendar. For the first day of the year observed on other lunar or lunisolar calendars, see Lunar New Year.
Traditional Chinese holiday. Fireworks over the Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong ; fireworks and firecrackers are a traditional element of Chinese New Year celebrations.
Main article: Chinese calendar. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Renri. Main article: Lantern Festival.
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See also: Fireworks bans in China. Main article: Lunar New Year Film. See also: Fu character. Main article: Chunyun. Play media. Retrieved 7 November Retrieved Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 28 January Yahoo News Philippines. Retrieved 29 June Mauritius Tourism Authority.
Archived from the original on 11 February The year of the Dog has begun". Retrieved 9 February EC Brighton. Retrieved 8 February Central Weather Bureau.
Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 26 January Retrieved August 2, Traditional Chinese Festivals and Local Celebrations.
Wan Li Book Company Limited. Ancient Origins. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original PDF on 29 March Retrieved 4 March Department of State.
Retrieved 29 January Ministry of Manpower, Government of Singapore. Embassy of the United States: Singapore. Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 13 May Hong Kong Government.
Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 24 Jan Archived from the original on 2 April Embassy of the United States: Jakarta, Indonesia.
Retrieved 3 May Taiwan, the heart of Asia. Tourism Bureau, Republic of China Taiwan. American Institute in Taiwan.
Retrieved 13 September Edited for grammar. Chinese Culture and Lore.
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